Convener of Major Events & Activities 
 Golden Jubilee Events:
 Welcome Address
  Report

Events

Actively involved in organization of the events of Silver Jubilee Celebrations & Seminar (1975) and those of the Alumni Association (1983-1989).

Convener: National seminar on "Environmental Impact Assessment of Small-Scale Mineral Resource Utilization" October 1995; also brought out the pre-seminar volume of papers entitled "ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE OF SMALL-SCALE MINERAL RESOURCE UTILIZATION"

Coordinator: Entrepreneurship Awareness Camp (EAC) on “Mineral Resource Utilization”, sponsored by the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, March 1995.

Coordinator: Skill Development Training Program (SDTP) on “Mineral Resource Utilization”, sponsored by the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, 01 May-14 June 1997.

Coordinator:, Entrepreneurship Development Cell (EDC) of the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. Since May 1998.

Coordinator: Entrepreneurship Development Program EDP-98 "Entrepreneurship & Computer Application in Mineral Sector" sponsored Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, New Delhi & IDBI; organized during the period November 17, 1998 through December 26, 1998.

Coordinator: EAC-99A "Marble Based Entrepreneurship" sponsored by Department of Science & Technology, GoI & NABARD, 23trd March 1999 through 27th March 1999.

Coordinator: Entrepreneurship Awareness Camp (EAC) organized in the Bhogilal Pandya Government College, Dungarpur, during the period 27th through 29th October 1999. Sponsored by the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, New Delhi. Coordinator: of the 4 - week Entrepreneurship Development Program (EDP) on “Computer Designing and Screen-Printing” for women candidates, organized during the period 17th May through 22nd June 2000. Department of Science & Technology, Government of India & Department of Science & Technology, Government of Rajasthan, sponsored it. Three Follow-up meetings of the EDP participants were held on 29th November 2000, 25th February 2001, and 25th March 2001 that were attended by Project Officers of DST, Jaipur and Udaipur.

Coordinator: EAC-2k1 on “Rural & Non-Conventional Energy Sector”, sponsored by Rajasthan Energy Development Agency, Jaipur. (REDA) and organized at CTAE on 13th August 2001. Coordinator: of the six-week Technology based Entrepreneurship Development Program (TEDP) on “Computer Graphics, Designing and Art work” was organized during the period 15th October 2001 through 24th November 2001. Department of Science & Technology, Government of India has sponsored the program.

Coordinator: of the four-week Technology Based Entrepreneurship Development Program TEDP on "Internet, Web Development, & E-Commerce" sponsored by Department of Science & Technology, Government of India was organized during the period  May 13, through June 08, 2002.

Coordinator: Technology Based Entrepreneurship Development Program TEDP “Mineral & Ground Water Exploration & Consultancy sponsored by DST, GoI,  organized during the period February 11 through March 22, 2002. Coordinator: Technology Based Entrepreneurship Development Program TEDP “Environmental Monitoring and Analysis for Technical Consultancy” sponsored by DST, GoI proposed to be organized in June 2003. 

Convener: 12th Indian Geological Congress and National seminar on Ground Water Resources, organized during the period 8th through 12th February 2000. Convener's Report: Notes 12th Indian Geological Congress, Udaipur, Rajasthan, Journal of the Geological Society of India, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 103-104. 2000. Convener's Report: 12th Indian Geological Congress, Udaipur, Rajasthan, Current Science, vol. 79 (3), pp. 270-271. 2000.

Convener: The Golden Jubilee Events and the Seminar on “Development of Geology and Mineral Resource in India–Vision 2010”, organized during the period 15th - 16th November 2000.

XII-Indian Geological Congress: Welcome Address + Report
XII Indian Geological Congress
8th February 2000

Welcome Address of Convener- XII IGC & Head of the University Department of Geology, Udaipur
Shri B. C. Bora, President IGC & Chairman ONGC, Prof. A. K. Singh, Hon'ble Vice Chancellor, Prof. Ram S. Sharma, guests and distinguished participants of the IGC.

It is my proud privilege to welcome you to this convention of earth scientists in the historic city of Udaipur and on the momentous occasion of the on set of 21st Century. This year is additionally joyous because we are celebrating the Golden Jubilee year of founding of our state of Rajasthan, and we are entering the golden jubilee year of establishment of our Department.

Objectives of the Congress and related matters will be dealt by my senior colleagues, therefore without being repetitive, I shall at the on set, concisely, introduce the host institution.


This Department was founded in June 1950 as the first post-graduate science department in Rajputana. Prof. G. S. MAHAJANI, Vice Chancellor of the then Rajputana University   (University of Rajasthan since 1957) wrote in our Silver Jubilee Souvenir: "Priority considerations dictated that we should begin with Geology...Udaipur with its proximity to Aravalli range was chosen for its location. We were fortunate in securing in Dr. K. P. Rode a competent first incumbent". Founder Prof. Rode recalled "Udaipur was happily chosen for Geology as Mewar then was the center of mining industry with vast mineral potential in Rajasthan and on this very account the Rajasthan Government also chose Udaipur to locate its Department of Mines & Geology." The newly founded Department was started in the then Maharana Bhopal Government College; the Department shifted to its present premises in October 1962. In the same year was added a one-year post-M. Sc. course of M. Sc. Tech., Applied Geology. This course became very popular amongst students because it offered them opportunity of extensive field training at an operative mine and trained them to be competent exploration geologists.


The Department was founded with the objective of commencing research in geology for the state of Rajasthan in particular and that of India in general. Soon thereafter, the Department was assigned additional duty of providing trained geologists for the projected demand for the soon-to-be founded Republic of India. The first batch of M. Sc. degree holders graduated from this Department in 1953.


Fifty-year period is the right time to make an assessment of the impact made by an institution and to review what we have achieved and where have we failed.

A "quick-scan" of research contribution of the Department during the past five decades shows that this institution has made significant contribution, of high impact value, in several branches of geology. Prof. Rode's training with Prof. Paul Niggli (Zurich), one of the greatest geologists of the past century resulted in his developing petrology, mineralogy, and petrochemistry in the new department. He set out to develop infrastructure facilities for these branches. Consequently, latest equipment were procured viz. Philips X-ray diffractometer, Leitz polarizing microscopes, 5-axis universal stages, Dollar's integrating stage, Frantz isodynamic separator, Leitz PANPHOT universal research microscope, refractometer etc. Petrochemical, section-cutting and photomicrographic and photographic facilities of high quality were set up in an independent building of the department. An excellent library was also obvious requirement having books, and important foreign and Indian journals. Publication of "Rajasthan University Studies in Science - Geology Section" was started that enabled us to establish free exchange of publications with many foreign institutions. Over the five decades the library grew to its present status having 5809 books, 30 subscribed journals, 9 magazines and 11 newspapers. Dozens of CDs and Internet connection have made it favorite with students and research scholars. An educative museum was also set up which has kept growing through the collection of faculty, research scholars, and augmented by samples brought by students during their field training programs. In this "work-friendly" infrastructure the Department set out to attract researchers from all corners of the country.

Achieving this, Prof. Rode concurrently commenced research work in the field of petrology-mineralogy of pegmatites of Mewar and complicated suite of Mudwara Igneous Complex. At the same time study of Gondwana Formations and sedimentologic study of Aravalli Formations of Udaipur Valley were also taken up. Personally, Prof. Rode set out to develop his theory of "Sheet Movement". Prof. Rode provided the right leadership in identification, development and implementation of the objectives of the Department. He enthused the faculty to achieve those objectives. Faculty members and technician were sent out to be trained in the aspects that needed to be developed in the Department. Prof. Rode's understanding of Global stratigraphic correlation was highly appreciated (he was Vice President of Gondwana Commission during the 19th International Geological Congress, Algiers, 1952; and the 20th International Geological Congress, Mexico, 1956). But his theory of continental expansion through "Sheet Movement" did not gain acceptance.

The guiding principle of research in our department can be summed up in the words of late Prof. M. W. Chaudhari: "One approach to research is to collect data and fit it into a model currently in fashion. This type of work undoubtedly has its utility; the data so collected have their own importance even if the model changes. Another approach needs to be pursued is to undertake work of lasting value to science and society" Faculty of the Department followed both the paths to keep itself with the "current trend" and "lasting value & rationality" courses. The desired research out-put, during the formative years, took back seat because of demand for trained geologists in the country. Prof. Rode therefore set out to develop courses suitable for the contemporary needs. Requisite laboratory and field training facilities were developed. The research activity again gained momentum in late 1960s when certain degree of employment saturation had set in. Petrologic and mineralogic studies of certain unclassified rocks of Banded Gneissic Complex of Central Rajasthan were taken up which resulted in detailed petrochemical studies of charnockite, migmatite, amphibolite, mylonite etc. Concurrently, works commenced on the study of base metal and industrial mineral deposits. The well-published hydrothermal concept of lead zinc mineralization at Zawar was challenged by the synsedimentary concept of mineralization. Commercial viability of fluorspar deposits of Mando-Ki-Pal was challenged although the project had been favorably cleared by foreign consultants for commercial production. Host rock petrology, structural, environmental, and genetic studies of several mineral deposits were completed, namely, those of base metals, radioactive minerals, scheelite, asbestos, barite, fluorspar, pegmatite, rock phosphate, talc. Despite not being favorably located for the subject, but essentially because of faculty specialization, research activity was also taken up in fields of invertebrate paleontology, specially for the bivalves of Kachchh and Saurashtra: and in micropaleontology for the ostracodes of Kachchh, Saurashtra, South India, Meghalaya and Assam. In these studies several new species and genera have been described and reported.

One aspect of Geology of Rajasthan that had been attracting the attention of earth scientist was the complex structural episodic history of the rocks of Rajasthan. Consequently, detailed structural studies of Aravalli and Banded Gneissic Complex were undertaken in the Department following which the complex structural, tectonic, and Precambrian stratigraphy of Rajasthan is now clearly understood, specially the Basement-Cover relationship. An evolutionary model for the Paleoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup has been prepared based on detailed tectono-stratigraphic studies of rocks of Rajasthan.

The petrochemical laboratory of 1950s was upgraded in view of rapid progress made in  instrumentation and techniques during late 1960s. These developments resulted in generation of considerable amount of petrochemical data for the rocks of central and southern Rajasthan. Geostatistical evaluation of the geochemical data was logical follow up action. Metamorphic aspects of the Precambrian Formations were also studied..Pyroclastic and flow rocks of western Rajasthan also received attention they deserved. In view of the changing priorities the Department made significant contribution in the field of Applied Geology specially the utilitarian aspects of mineral deposits-their petrologic, structural, granulometric, and fluid inclusion studies. The Department also started work in field of Environmental Geology. Unfortunately, this aspect was taken up by lot many agencies in the country, with the result this aspect started loosing rationality because of one-up-manship-attitude. Through the efforts of the Department this biased attitude was rectified at national level, which resulted in rationalization of the national mineral policy - "forests can be relocated and grown but the mineral deposits can not be relocated and created" - became the accepted phrase. Likewise, the uncalled for ban on asbestos was scientifically assessed and through the unbiased approaches of the Department the attitude of public in this matter was rationalized; the Union Government has initiate review of lifting of this prejudiced ban. Government agencies of Brazil and Canada also took note of these efforts.

Dispersal of the scientific data and studies were accomplished through large number of publications, 74 Ph.D. theses, organization of several seminars, refresher courses, etc. The faculty kept itself with the scientific progress and contemporary developments through direct interaction with geoscientists of Indian and foreign institutions. Several visits abroad (31) of the staff members also helped in faculty improvement.


One branch that should have developed in our Department but did not was the groundwater geology.

We have regret about it.
Research efforts of the faculty were achieved through several research projects (33 Nos.), sponsored by government agencies and industry alike. University Grants Commission recognized the positive impact made by the department and thus motivated our efforts through awards of SAP (Special Assistance Program) 1990 - 1995 and COSIST (Committee on Strengthening of Infrastructure for Science & Technology) support 1990-1995, followed by SAP Phase-II (1996-2001). The Department of Science and Technology, Government of India has awarded us several research projects as also an Entrepreneurship Development Cell. The Department had a symbiotic relationship with Public and State Government Undertakings. Private sector and small entrepreneurs have always had easy access to our department. Over the years the laboratory facilities of the department have also been utilized for training the human resources of other departments and organizations. The current upgraded research facilities in the department include - scanning electron microscope, inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer, image analysis system, microthermometry equipment, computers and accessories, as well as the Internet facility.

An assessment of the second objective of the Department i.e.- PRODUCTION OF TRAINED GEOLOGISTS - will reveal that the department has also achieved this objective satisfactorily. The department, right from the beginning, has been updating the curriculum to meet the contemporary needs. Right from the beginning rigorous field training has been imparted to our students. Adequate field camping facility (bus, tentage etc.) was created. Weekly field excursions/seminars/ invited lectures/technical film shows became hallmark of the Department. A number of geoscientists from abroad and national institutes and organizations were invited from time to time to deliver invited lectures. Lately, the emphasis has also shifted to "functional education". We have also kept ourselves with the contemporary developments and shifted emphasis in education and training to meet the contemporary needs. Several universities abroad have discontinued or greatly reduced the curricula in aspects of geology that are no longer of relevance. We in India will also have to shift our emphasis to "functional education in earth sciences".


Close associations between the teachers and the taught have been maintained in our department. Strike and indiscipline was unheard of. At the time of the Silver Jubilee Prof. Rode proudly announced: "At times when the University institutions in Jaipur were closed for long duration on account of student activities, our department was the only institution working normally and we had to seek special permission from the Vice-chancellor for running the department during such forced closures. Our students exhibited wonderful discipline and gave full cooperation to the staff on their normal teaching and field training". For a better interaction between the department and its alumni an Alumni Association was started in the year 1982. Through the efforts of the Association an annual award of Rs. 10,000/- for the first position holder at M. Sc. Tech. Applied Geology and a research scholarship were introduced by Shri H. P. R. Chaudhari, unfortunately due to certain procedural problems these awards were discontinued in 1989.

The latest laboratory and library facilities along with a competent and devoted faculty were available to train good geologists. Alumni of the Department have been and are occupying responsible positions in practically most of the earth science organizations, notably in Rajasthan Department of Mines and Geology, Rajasthan Ground Water Department, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Geological Survey of India, Hindustan Copper Limited, Atomic Mineral Division, Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited, Indian Bureau of Mines, Cement Corporation of India, state government undertakings, several University Departments etc. Scores of our alumni have done well as entrepreneurs also. Our faculty members and alumni have won national and state awards; notably the National Mineral Awards (one by the faculty and eight by the alumni). We can justifiably be proud of two of the most significant mineral discoveries in Rajasthan - the Jhamarkotra Rock phosphate and Agucha zinc-lead deposits by our alumni who were also largely responsible for their exploration and development.

To sum up the impact assessment of our Department - we may look back at the objective of founding of the Department. Prof. Rode recalled…"at the interview held for the appointment of a Professor to the Birla Chair of Geology at Udaipur the doyen of Indian geology, the late Dr. D. N. Wadia asked me what my contributions would be if I am appointed to the chair. My answer was that I would like to bring order out of Chaos, which prevailed, in Rajasthan Geology. On this reply he smiled at my audacity". The Department that Prof. Rode founded and developed, directly and through the trained human resources, "brought order out of chaos in Rajasthan Geology"… and much more. To that extent we can look back with justified pride and satisfaction. The institution has served the society and the subject creditably although during the post-silver jubilee period we lost some of the hallmarks of the first twenty-five years. May be it is the price one pays for rapid progress that was taking place during the last quarter of past century.


I once again welcome you to our Department and hope you will have a memorable visit to Udaipur.


Thank you ladies & gentleman!

Pushpendra Singh Ranawat
REPORT: XII-IGC

Report published in
1. JOURNAL - GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA, VOL.56, No.1, July 2000, p 103-104
2.CURRENT SCIENCE, Vol.79, No.3, 10 August 2000, p270

Report of the 12th Indian Geological Congress, Udaipur,Rajasthan

The 12th Convention of Indian Geological Congress and National Seminar on Ground Water Resources was held at Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, during 08-12 February 2000. B. C. Bora, President IGC delivered an address on “ROLE OF FOSSIL FUELS AS FUTURE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA”. The Key Note Address by D. K. Chadha (Central Groundwater Board) was on “GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT IN ARID ZONES IN INDIA".  Depleting mineral resources is a matter of great concern to earth scientists and the invited lecture by G. S. Roonwal (University of Delhi) was on “VOLCANOGENIC MASSIVE SULFIDES (VMS) ON THE MID-OCEANIC RIDGES–RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE?”. The Technical Sessions of the IGC and Seminar on Groundwater Resources were held concurrently. “Profile of Presentations” (the Abstract Volume) having 175 titles were distributed to the registrants.

The Sixth IGC Foundation Lecture by P. N. Agrawal (University of Roorkee) on “SEISMOLOGICAL ASPECT OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE REDUCTION”, was followed by the invited lecture by R. S. Sharma  (University of Rajasthan) on “P-T-t EVOLUTION OF OROGENIC BELTS: A CASE STUDY OF THE ARAVALLI MOBILE BELT”.

Technical Session of IGC

Papers to the Technical Sessions of IGC were presented on five broad themes. The presentation on Petrology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry Session (23 titles) covered a wide spectrum including petrogenesis, migmatization of granulitic anorthosite complex and granites, petrology of carbon phyllite and limestone, and computer programs.

A large number of papers (32 titles) were to be presented in the Session on Mineral Resources, Minerals Exploration, Fossil Fuels and Mineral Industries, but only a few could be orally presented, covering various types of mineral resources, strategies for exploration and entrepreneurship, and geotechnical studies. The scope of foreign investment and opening the gates to multinationals were debated at length.


The Session on Precambrian Geology and Tectonics (16 presentations) witnessed presentation on tectonic modeling of several areas.  Stratigraphic position of ultramafic rocks in the Aravalli and the shear zone characters in Delhi and Aravalli rocks, the Asia–India collision using thermochronology, and papers on neotectonics and microtectonics were also discussed.


The Session on Phanerozoic Stratigraphy and Paleontology (7 titles) was essentially an “oil-men show”. Papers on petroleum exploration, erection of basin stratigraphy of Bombay High and Assam regions and the stratigraphy, using mega fossils and new species of Ostracode, were presented. The Invited Lecture of Kuldeep Chandra (KDMIPE – ONGC) on “PETROLEUM SYSTEMS IN THE INDIAN SEDIMENTARY BASINS: STRATIGRAPHIC AND GEOCHEMICAL PERSPECTIVES” was presented in absentia by Anil Bhandari (ONGC).

In the Session on Environmental Geology and Remote Sensing (23 titles) effects of mining, afforestation, watershed developments using GIS techniques and assessment of groundwater pollution by remote sensing were presented.

National Seminar On Groundwater Resources

The National Seminar On Groundwater Resources was covered under four Sessions having 71 titles. The presentations laid stress on the study of groundwater, its recharge techniques, improvement in quality and management of available groundwater resources of several ground water regimes of India. The modeling of fractures, fissures in hard rock areas for fruitful targeting the sites for tube-wells and the electrical resistivity techniques in semiarid and arid region were discussed. The chemical quality and fluoride content in groundwater were of great concern. Techniques for deflouridation were explained and discussed. Stress was laid on artificial recharges and management of groundwater in semiarid and arid terrain.

A Group Discussion on the Focal Theme “EMERGING OPPORTUNITIES & GEOLOGICAL CURRICULA OF THE 21ST CENTURY” anchored by V. K. S. Dave, (Roorkee) was held in which a drastic change in the earth science education was discussed in light of the contemporary needs & developments, specially in applied geology and entrepreneurship. Introduction of geology as one of the optional subjects at senior secondary school level was stressed by most of the participants.


Two Excursions were also organized - one across Udaipur–Haldighati–Rajnagar Section to familiarize the participants with Aravalli rocks and mechanized marble mining. The other was held along Udaipur–Ranakpur Section to get a feel of deep water Aravalli and Delhi Formations. The participants enjoyed the picturesque beauty of the route to the famous 15th Century Jain Temple at Ranakpur.
The Valedictory Address of N. S. Bohra (Department of Mines & Geology, Rajasthan) on “FIVE DECADES OF MINERAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN RAJASTHAN: AN OVERVIEW” was followed by vote of thanks by Vinod Agrawal, Secretary 12th IGC.

Amongst the Recommendations of the 12TH India Geological Congress, Udaipur, the following are noteworthy:

1. Groundwater should now be considered as critically–renewable asset and there is need for its rational utilisation. A national water policy based on this concept is called for.

2. Regional Mineral Quality Assessment Centre (RQAC) should be set up in every state of the country. The RQAC should have facility/equipment for characterisations of chemical & physical properties of minerals/rocks, especially in relation to their industrial specifications.

Drastic change in curricula of earth science education is called for in light of contemporary needs & developments – aspects of applied geology and entrepreneurship should be promoted. Introduction of geology as one of the optional subjects at senior secondary school level is recommended  

FIVE-POINT RECOMMENDATIONS
of the 12TH Indian Geological Congress, UDAIPUR

1.    Groundwater should now be considered as critically–renewable asset and there is need for its rational utilisation. A national water policy based on this concept is called for.

2.    Regional Mineral Quality Assessment Centre (RQAC) should be set up in every state of the country. The RQAC should have facility/equipment for characterisations of chemical & physical properties of minerals/rocks, especially in relation to their industrial specifications.

3.    There is a need for better co-ordination between university and industry and efforts should be made to achieve it for national development.


4.    Society & industry oriented research should be promoted & dispersal of its result should reach common man through the publications also in popular magazines, newspapers, TV programs, and the Internet.


5.    Drastic change in curricula of earth science education is called for in light of contemporary needs & developments – aspects of applied geology and entrepreneurship should be promoted. Introduction of geology as one of the optional subjects at senior secondary school level is recommended
.

WELCOME ADDRESS: GOLDEN JUBILEE EVENTS
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY, ML SUKHADIA UNIVERSITY, UDAIPUR Welcome Address of the Convener: Golden Jubilee Events

H. E. the Governor - Justice Shri Anshuman Singhji, Hon'ble Minister for Education Dr. C. P. Joshi, Hon'ble Vice Chancellor Prof. A. K. Singh, Respected Dean Faculty of Science Prof. HRS Tyagi, distinguished geoscientists. Ladies and Gentlemen!

I welcome you to the Golden Jubilee events of our Department - the Inauguration of the Golden Jubilee Wing constructed under the Special Assistance Program of University Grants Commission; launching of our new web-site http://www.geolmlsu.org; the National Seminar on “Development of Geology and Mineral Resources in India – Vision 2010” and our Alumni Meet.

This Department was established in 1950 as the first postgraduate department in Rajasthan. Selection of Geology to be the first PG science department amongst the science subjects reflects the foresight of the planners of the newly founded state of Rajasthan and “priority considerations” (Prof. G. S. Mahajani, VC; Economics at Jaipur and Philosophy at Jodhpur were the other two PG Departments established at that time). Although the Rajputana University was located at Jaipur, this Department was established in Udaipur because of the geological significance of this region. State Government Directorate of Mines and Geology of was likewise headquartered at Udaipur.

This Department was setup with the twin

objectives:
(I)  To undertake Geological Research and
(II)  
To train much–needed geologists for the country

The Department was expected to develop functional infrastructure, and provide virtuous teaching, skillful field training, peerless research and to achieve objectives of scientific and societalconsequences. The department started working from the roomsprovided in the then Maharana Bhopal College. A Birla Chairwas established and Prof. K. P. Rode was assigned the gigantictask of achieving the objectives of setting up of the department.The present campus was acquired and Prof. C. D. Deshmukh, Chairman University Grants Commission laid the foundationstone of this majestic building on 28th October 1958 whichwas completed in 1962. The next milestone, in the same year,was starting of the one-year post M. Sc. course of M. Sc.Tech. Applied Geology. An overview of the history of the department will reveal that the first 25 years were essentially devotedto manpower training to meet the requirements of geologistsin the country. By the time the Department reached the SilverJubilee mark, in 1975, it had produced only seven Ph. D. theses,the faculty had published only a few research papers and ithad organized only one seminar, because the “priority considerations”dictated human resources development. By then some of ouralumni had reached top positions in several organizationsand had creditably served Departments of Mines and Geology(DMG), Ground Water Departments (GWD), Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL), Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL), Geological Survey ofIndia (GSI), Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), AtomicMineral Division (AMD), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB),educational and research institutions, and private enterprises.The post–Silver Jubilee period saw a certain degree of saturation in employment opportunities in geology, this period was also the era of development of instrumentation and these aspects mainly furthered the impetus to research work during the next 25 years when nearly 70 Ph. D. were produced. A large number of papers were also published and several seminars were organized. Because of its contributions to the subject the department received financial supports of University Grants Commission under the schemes of COSIST (Committee on Strengthening of Infrastructure for Science & Technology) 1990-1995 and SAP (Special Assistance Program) 1990-1995 Phase-I and 1996-2001 Phase-II.  

This Department was part of University of Rajasthan up to December 1988.  Being located away from Rajasthan University, Jaipur and not being part of Udaipur University, this department developed its own culture and ethos, which have been unique features of this department. Notables amongst them are:

1. We tried to be as self-reliant and as self-sustained as possible. Besides being essentially dependent on the University we also made efforts to generate our own resources through projects, schemes and applying for any available funding of the government agencies        (PL 480, COSIST, SAP, EDC etc) and also through scores of projects and schemes of government, public and state government undertakings.

2. Infrastructure development did not stop with having our own independent building and its expansion and extension from time to time (the Golden Jubilee Wing inaugurated today and the new tube-well are recent effort in this line). We also set up our own library, rock section preparation facility, workshop, vehicles and camping facilities.

3.      We tried to develop laboratories of contemporary importance, with matching posts and manpower training. Staring with X-ray diffraction, section preparation, petrographic and photographic facilities, we also developed conventional analytical laboratory, followed by sophisticated analytical instrumentation laboratory. We were one of the first institutions in the state to start extensive and intensive computerization, so much so that it met with vociferous opposition at the time of its implementation. The developments during past couple of years have vindicated our stand and consequently we gained a distinct edge over other institutions in this respect. Our efforts are continuing to upgrade it to the latest facilities including the Internet applications. Launching of our web site today is a step in that direction.

4.      Another special feature of our department has been to readily provide our facilities to other researchers. This was much before UGC asked educational institutions to share their facilities with others. Workers from University Zoology department, Medical and Ayurvedic Colleges, Entrepreneurs, University and Government Departments were willingly and cheerfully provided facilities available in the department. Many academicians, government officials and technicians have been trained in specialization and facilities developed in this department

5.      Change and upgrade. We have also kept updating our curriculum with the time. We are happy that UGC choose this department, in 1962, to start the new scheme of one-year post–M. Sc. course in Applied Geology. This course proved very functional to train Applied Geologists. Success achieved here and looking at the usefulness of this course it was subsequently started at couple of more departments in India. Field training programs have also been hallmarks of this department and these have not diluted or reduced to a farce. Boards of Studies and Committees of Courses have been active in upgrading the syllabi from time to time. Statistical geology was started in 1980 and a paper on Computer Application in Geology was started in 1998. These aspects have also given us an edge in manpower training. This is the only geology department in country to have an Entrepreneurship Development Cell, established 1998 with the help of Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. This step proved timely and now several other geology departments are planning to follow.

6.      The department tried to serve - Science, Society and Self in that order. Rational and trend-setting works were undertaken that had impact on science as well as society and consequently the "self" was also benefited. The Department way back in 1975 took up environmental aspects, but we did not use it as eco-weapon but followed rational approach to environment. Our concept of "forest can be relocated but not the mineral deposits" was well received and appreciated that resulted in restructuring of the National Mineral Policy. Likewise, because of our studies and propagation of concepts of "risk-benefit assessment" and "notion of acceptable risk" for asbestos problem the Union Government is now reviewing the unjustified ban on asbestos mining. Of course there were certain failures and kinks during these years, but these are parts of all the developing institutions and we also became victim of a national level problem when we should have faced it with resolve and determination. This resulted during the period (1980s) when the trend of “publish or perish” was at its peak in academic institutions. The concept of society, science and self witnessed distortion in priorities where self took precedence over components of institution, science and society (akin to shubh-labh V/s labh-shubh priority). This resulted in disinterest of academicians in other aspects of the institutions such as replenishing of stores, stock verifications, infrastructure development, accounting and auditing etc. It also resulted in improper recruitment and promotions in educational institutions. Collapse of Soviet Union and socialism have now resulted in rectification of the problem where academicians are now expected to evaluate their - Functions, Responsibilities, and Accountability. Even in politics the concept of reward to "performing state" raised recently by the Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Shri Chandra Babu Naidu has now been accepted and similar assessments are now called for in educational institution also.

7.      Another unique aspect of the department has been the family-like relationship of teaching, non-teaching staffs and students. Being away from the main campus at Jaipur for the first thirty-eight years and not being part of the University in Udaipur, we developed a special culture that has been an aspect of wonder for other departments and units of the University.

8.      The subjects of Geology, and because of that the geology departments are now at a crossroad where we have to again choose correct path and policies. World over, there is decline in interest in science subjects and it is all the more true for earth sciences. We have reached a degree of saturation in respects to conventional or traditional aspects of geology, which are now fairly well understood, and therefore, we have to become more useful for societal aspects. Groundwater resource management, hydro-geochemistry and environmental aspects are of relevance now. Fortunately, the state of Rajasthan is not plagued by natural disasters like earthquakes or landslides, where also the role of earth scientist is required. Geological Society of India, XII Indian Geological Congress held in this Department and several educationists have called for introduction of geology at school level. We urge the state government to take implementational steps in this regard. Many postgraduate departments of geology were opened in Rajasthan during past few decades without proper infrastructure development. The faculty in these departments is doing commendable service but the best of faculty will be hamstrung without proper infrastructure. The state government is also requested to take note of these situations.

9.      Reviewing the impact factor of the department and scanning the achievement-level of the objectives of founding of this department we find that the first objective – “bring order in the Geology of Rajasthan” has been achieved, directly and through its students; not only in the geology of Rajasthan but of several other localities of the country. Efforts of the department have attracted attention of earth scientists from around the globe and Rajasthan has been an important destination for several overseas geologists and geology institutions of international repute, so much so that there is talk of promoting geo-tourism.

The second objective of “production of skillful geologists" has also been achieved well as exemplified by the contributions of our alumni. Many of them have justifiably occupied position of power in prestigious institution like DMG, GWD, HZL HCL, MECL, GSI, AMD, ONGC, CGWB etc. Several of them have won prestigious awards including nine National Mineral Awards. Even those who have not been rewarded have also made significant contribution in development of geology and several mineral deposits in Rajasthan including the world-famous Agucha lead zinc deposits, Jhamarkotra rock phosphate, limestone deposits, industrial minerals deposits and decorative stones as well as groundwater resources. Equally significant has been the contribution of our students as entrepreneurs.

However, we do not want to sit over judgment for ourselves and would like the society and the government to tell us as to how we can improve our utility. We wish to keep our eyes and ears open and attitude positive for the over-all betterment.
I once again welcome you all to our department for the Golden Jubilee events.

Thank you ladies & gentlemen!
REPORT: GOLDEN JUBILEE EVENTS
National Seminar on  "Development of Geology and Mineral Resource in India - Vision 2010"

The national Seminar on  "Development of Geology and Mineral Resource in India - Vision 2010" was organized to mark the golden jubilee of the establishment of the University Department of Geology at Udaipur. It was inaugurated by His Excellency Justice Shri Anshuman Singh, Governor of Rajasthan and Chancellor of the University on Wednesday the 15th November 2000 at 11 a.m. Hon’ble Dr. C. P. Joshi, Minister for Education, Government of Rajasthan was the guest of honor. Prof. Col. A. K. Singh, Hon'ble Vice Chancellor, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur presided over the function. Dr. P. S. Ranawat, Head, Department of Geology and Convener of the seminar welcomed the august gathering. Prof. H. R. S. Tyagi, Dean, College of Science presented the Vote of Thanks. The inaugural program was compered by Dr. P. C. Avadich, Organizing Secretary, Golden Jubilee Celebrations. On this occasion the Golden Jubilee Wing of the Bhu Vigyan Bhawan [constructed under the Special Assistance Program of the University Grants Commission] and the web-site of geology department http://www.geolmlsu.org was also inaugurated by His Excellency the Governor of Rajasthan.

A total of 56 papers, including 10 invited papers, were received for the seminar. Abstracts of these papers were published in the Abstracts Volume (62 p). Out of these 6 invited papers and 16 other papers could only be accommodated in the available time. Due to shortage of time, rest of the papers were only discussed or presented as posters. All the presentations were well received and appreciated by the distinguished earth scientist. A large number of delegates participated in the discussion.  


Technical Sessions:
The papers in the Technical Sessions of the National Seminar were covered in four broad themes. The first session on Development of Geology and Emerging Thrust Areas covered a wide spectrum from Precambrian to Holocene. The key papers presented by Prof. D. S. Chauhan of JNV University, Jodhpur dealt with the connection of lost Vedic River Saraswati, part of the ancient river system of northern India, and upliftment of Himalayas. He emphasized that tracing of the paleochannel of River Saraswati could be helpful in solving the water crisis of Western Rajasthan. Prof. B. S. Paliwal JNV University, Jodhpur, discussed the stratigraphy of Marwar Supergroup and emphasized that they need a fresh look, which will help in reframing the geological column of Rajasthan. He also stressed upon better co-ordination between different agencies working in the area. Prof R. P. Kachhara of Nagaland University, Kohima proposed molluscan zones for Bhuban Subgroup of Surma and Garo Groups of Eastern India. He discussed these along with formational zones and other uniform scheme of molluscan role for Miocene sequences of the Indian subcontinent.   Dr. A. P. Shiva Kumar of Osmania University, Hyderabad, highlighted the significance of physico – mechanical properties of rocks and predicted that the field of rock -mechanics shall be an emerging thrust area for geological researches in near future.

In the Second Technical Session of Geology of Mineral Resource; salient features of geology and genesis of many mineral deposits including uranium, copper and new report of tin mineralization near village Rajgarh, district Ajmer, attracted much discussion.   Shri P. P. Kala, General Manager [Geology], Hindustan Zinc Ltd. discussed emerging exploration opportunities for zinc resource in India in global perspective in light of the near-future demand-supply ratio.

The Third Session on Mineral Development included a large number of papers on exploration, exploitation, environmental issues, mineral processing and technology upgradation. The papers presented by Shri S. R. Jani, General Manager [Geology] of Binani Industries Ltd and his co-author on Computer Application in Ore Body Evaluation with a case history of limestone deposits and by Shri N. Balasubramanian, General Manager [Planning] of RSMML on direct application of low-grade rock-phosphate, primarily in the acidic soils in the country and some of the impediments faced in this process, generated much interest. Mineral development and its Environmental Impact Assessment were emphasized by Shri M. L. Jhanwar from Jaipur (retired Director, Geological Survey of India).


 In the Fourth Session on Domestic and International Market for Indian Minerals and Mineral Policies the key paper was presented by Dr. M. G. Deshmukh, Director {Technical}, Mineral Exploration Corp., Nagpur, on Aluminum Industry in India - Vision 2010. He presented a very bright future for the Indian aluminum Industry. With vast bauxite resource  [6th ranking in world] India can capture a large chunk of global market. Other papers presented mainly dealt with prospects of value-added earnings in mineral sectors. Shri R. P. Vijayvergia, Sr. Geologist, Department of Mines and Geology, Government of Rajasthan, and his co-author dealt at large the role of public sector and private sector in Rajasthan. They concluded that under changed government policies, private sector would have significant role in mineral development in Rajasthan.

Shri S. G. Bohra, Director, Department of Mines and Geology, Government of Rajasthan, in his Valedictory Address described last fifty years of mineral development in Rajasthan, which has shown steady progress during this period. The vast mineral potential of the state awaits systematic exploration and exploitation for its optimum utilization and the state Department of Mines and Geology has an onerous task of providing logistic support for ongoing activities. He projected the directions and priorities of the department, predicting a very rapid advancement in mineral development in near future. The Department of Mines and Geology has also launched a comprehensive web site http://www.dmg-raj.com. It contains on-line information of activities, available mineral resources, scope of mineral-based industries.     


Vote of thanks was proposed by Dr. P. C. Avadich, Organizing Secretary, Golden Jubilee Celebrations

Recommendations of the National Seminar on DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCE IN INDIA - VISION 2010
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Held at the Department of Geology, ML Sukhadia University, Udaipur on 15th November 2000 under the aegis of UGC & CSIR. Inaugurated by H. E. the Governor of Rajasthan, Justice Shri Anshuman Singh in the august presence of Dr. C. P. Joshi Hon’ble Minister for Education Government of Rajasthan and Prof. A. K. Singh, Hon’ble Vice Chancellor ML Sukhadia University.

The participants of the Seminar proposed the following recommendations that are to be forwarded to competent authorities for their early and effective implementation.

1.      Indiscriminate, heedless and unballasted consumption of groundwater has resulted in its rapid depletion causing severe draught conditions in Rajasthan in particular and several States of India in general. This problem therefore needs urgent attention of all the citizens. Efforts should be made to recharge the groundwater resources by augmentation of surface water resources including harvesting of rainwater. A policy for rational utilization of groundwater is urgently needed. A suitable legislation should be promulgated for the controlled use of groundwater as is being done in some of the water-scarcity States of USA.

2.      Mineral resources have wide-ranged utility in the modern-day world; consequently, the knowledge of geological sciences has wide societal significance. A change in the curricula of geological education in light of the present-day needs of the society is called for and introduction of geology in school education at senior secondary (10+2) level has become essential. The state government is therefore urged to implement its introduction at school level. Geological Society of India, Bangalore and the 12th Indian Geological Congress held in February 2000 have strongly advocated this aspect.

3.      A number of State and Central government agencies like the state Departments of Mines and Geology, Groundwater Departments, Geological Survey of India, Central Groundwater Department, Mineral Exploration Corp. Ltd., Atomic Minerals Division, Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Oil India Limited; state and central undertakings and enterprises like Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Hindustan Copper Ltd., Manganese Ore India Ltd and other academic institutions and research laboratories are engaged in geological studies, mineral exploration and  their development work..  A large quantity of data is generated by these agencies on account of their activities. This data remains locked in their records and is not made available to other agencies engaged in similar work or even working in the same area. A better co-ordination between different agencies and institutions is therefore called for.  This data should be treated as national property and should be available to any agency that needs it. This will save not only the time but avoid wasteful expenditure on the same kind of work.

4.      Academic institutions e.g. universities and other research laboratories play a vital role in developing human resource that help in mineral development. A small fraction of the revenue generated through mineral resources should be made available to these institutions for their upkeep and modernization. For example the Central Government is already levying a cess of 75 paise/tonne from the cement producers to generate corpus fund that is made available to central building material agencies like the National Council Cement  & Building Material etc. The state government is urged to provide 1% of the total earnings generated through mineral revenue to the universities having geology and mining engineering departments. (Say 1% of 306.1465 crores in 1998-99 = ~3crores)

5.      Mineral resources are wasting assets. Once exploited they cannot be generated. The presently available mining areas will be exhausted in near future. It will create deficiency and shortage of mineral raw material. A policy has to be framed wherein the mineral resource lying in the forest area could be utilized and in lieu of it New Forest areas be developed. The State Government is requested to coordinate effective implementation of this aspect by the Central government. 

 
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